The Mankind Has Been Drawing Energy
 From Several Sources Of Fossil Fuels Like
 Coal, Oil, And Gases Etc. Including The
 Nuclear Fuels. Whereas, The Use Of
 Fossil Fuels Invariably Results In
 Generation Of Large Quantities Of Carbon
 Dioxide Emissions, A Green House Gas
 That Pollutes The Environment And Is
 Alleged To Manifest Into Climate Change /
 Global Warming Over A Period Of Time.
 There Are A Number Of Risks Involved
 With The Use Of Nuclear Fuels. Moreover,
 Nuclear Fuel is Costlier Than Other Fuels.
 These Are The Conventional Source Of
 Energy, Extracted From Underground.
 However, The Fossil Fuel Stocks Have
 Been Depleting And The Cost Of
 Production Has Increased Over A Period
 Of Time Resulting In The Need To Look
 For Alternate Sources Of Energy Which
 Will Not Pollute The Environment And
 Shall Be Available in Abundance.  
 In Order To Mitigate The Effects Of Fossil
 Fuels, The Man started Searching For The
 Renewable Sources Of Energy.

 To Replace / Minimize Use Of Fossil Fuels
 And Help In Mitigation of GHG emissions.

 Solar PV
 Latest Technology, Highly Efficient And
 Reliable Equipment, Optimum Process
 Layout Designs For Lowest Cost Of
 Electricity Generation.
 Battery Storage Systems For Round The
 Clock Availability.

 Solar Thermal

 Parabolic Trough / Dish Technologies.
 Highly Efficient Components / Equipment /
 Systems For Optimum Solar Thermal
 Concentration And Collection, Parabolic
 Troughs With Line Concentration Heat
 Collectors And, Parabolic Dishes With
 Point Concentration Heat Collectors Have
 Been Developed. The  Concentrated Heat
 At High Temperatures 400 – 600 degree C
 Is Collected By Heat Transfer Fluids And
 Stored In Thermal Storage Tanks For Use
 Of Steam Generation.
 Best Thermal Storage Materials / Systems
 Have Been Developed For Round The
 Clock Availability.

 Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Using
 State-Of-The-Art Steam Generating
 Equipment With Dry / Wet Cooling And
 Water Desalination Incorporated For
 Optimized Energy Utilization.
 For Low Cost OF Electricity Generation
 With Water And Salt As Byproducts.

 Concentrated Solar Thermal (CST) With
 State-Of-The-Art Equipment Designed to
 suit Process Heat Requirements In All
 Type Of Process Industries To Replace
 Expensive Fossil Fuels Currently In Use.
 CST Could Be Utilized In Industries With
 High Yield Compared To Electricity
 Generation In Industries Like Food
 Processing, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals
 And Fertilizers, BioTech, Textiles
 Processing, Mining And Mineral
 Exploration, Processing, Steel / Metals.
 Cement Manufacturing, EOR In Oil
 Exploration, Oil Refineries etc. etc.
 All These Industries Require Process
 Water In Large Quantities. CST Being the
 Most Cost Effective Energy Source For
 Water Desalination, Wastewater Treatment,
 Water Recycling As Well As For Heating
 Cooling Ventilation And Refrigeration Systems.

 Wind Energy
 To Generate Electricity Using Wind
 Turbines With Battery Storage For 24 x 7
 Alternately, Using Compressed Air
 Storage, Demand Based Electricity
 Requirement Could Be Achieved With 24 x
 7 Availability.

 Solar & Wind Hybrid
 This Is Possible When We Have Stored
 Compressed Air From Wind Turbines And
 Thermal Energy Storage from Solar.
 Heated Compressed Air Can Be Used To
 Operate Gas Turbines For Electricity

 Energy From Oceans
 (Tidal, Waves, Under Water Currents)
 Power Could Be Generated Using State-
 Of-The-Art Equipment Design with
 Compressed Air / Water As Medium For
 Storage And Round The Clock Availability.

 Water is The Life Sustaining Commodity
 For Humans / Animals And Other Living
 Creatures. Suitable quality Domestic
 Water In large quantities Is Required For
 All Living Beings on This Earth For
 Drinking And Other Uses..
 We Also Need Much Larger Quantities Of
 Water In Varying Quality, For Agriculture,
 For Industrial Processes For Cleaning
 / For Steam Generation. 

 Wastewater (Grey / Black Water) Is
 Generated In Large Quantities By Humans
 / Other Living Creatures That Is Being
 Discharged Into The Very Same Water
 Sources As well As Into Sea. Badly
 Polluted / Contaminated Wastewater Is
 Generated In Larger Quantities From
 Industries As Well.

 Do We Expect And Get The Desired
 Quality Of Water In Required
 Quantities, From The Natural Sources?
 The Answer Is A Big NO.

 The Natural Water Sources Are Limited In
 Capacity With Make Up From The
 Seasonal Rains. This Water Gets
 Contaminated To A Certain Extent With
 The Untreated / Partially Treated Domestic
 / Industrial Wastewater.

 Then How Do We Address This
 Problem Of Large Quantities Of Clean
 Water Required For Domestic And
 Industrial Use?

 Water Treatment

 Water From Natural Sources Is Invariably
 Contaminated With Suspended / Dissolved
 Impurities And Microorganisms. We Need
 To Treat This Water From Natural Sources
 To Desired Quality For Domestic And
 Industrial Requirements.
 To Make Up For Shortages, We Need To
 Desalinate Seawater and Treat
 Wastewater For Recycling.

 Technical Innovations

 Several Technologies, Processes,
 Equipments Have Been Developed Based
 On Physical Separation, Chemical
 Treatment and Biological Reactions For
 Water And The Wastewater Treatment.
 Desalination Can Be Carried Out By
 Separation Using Semi- Permeable
 Membranes And / Or, By Distillation.

 Desalination Using Membrane Technology

 Excess Dissolved Solids Can Be Reduced
 To Below The Permissible Levels Using
 Ultra Filtration / Nano Filtration / Reverse
 Osmosis Depending On The TDS Levels
 In The Raw Water.
 Pre Treatment Shall Be Necessary
 Depending On The Suspended Solids /
 Colloidal Particles Content In The Raw
 Water. Macro / Micro Filtration Is Used To
 Separate Dirt And Ultra Filtration For
 Colloidal Impurities.
 For Drinking / Domestic Water Use,
 Microorganism Need To Be Removed By
 Chlorination / Ultra Filtration Methods.
 State-Of-The-Art Equipment Design Using
 Latest Manufacturing Techniques Are
 Used To Produce Long Life Low
 Maintenance Equipment.

 Desalination Using Latest Distillation
 Vacuum Distillation, Multi Stage Flash
 Evaporation, Compressed Vapor
 Evaporation Are Some Of The Techniques
 Used To Minimize The Energy Consumption. 
 Low Cost / Low Maintenance State-Of-
 The-Art Equipment Design Using Latest
 Manufacturing Techniques For Equipment.
 Use of Waste Heat / Solar Thermal Energy
 Are Commonly Used To Minimize Energy
 Costs For Distillation.
 Wastewater Treatment
 Conventional Wastewater Treatment
 Consists Of A Combination Of Physical,
 Chemical, And Biological Processes And
 Operations To Remove Solids, Organic
 Matter And, Nutrients From Wastewater.
 Domestic / Industrial Wastewater Needs
 To Be Treated Appropriately According to
 Local Legislations In Order To Prevent
 Pollution of The Water Bodies Which Are
 Invariably The Sources Of The Raw Water
 For Domestic / Industrial Uses.